Von Thünen’s Land Use Model

Definition- This model is used by geographers to explain the important relationship between the proximity a farm has to market and the crops grown on the farm. The principle belief of this mode is that farmers must consider the types of animals and crops to grow by evaluating the location of the market they are targeting in order to obtain the largest profit.
Explanation- This model is typically conveyed via six concentric rings, each representing an agricultural activity, with the market as the central node. The six rings in order of smallest to largest distance from market are as follows: Market-Gardening, Dairy, Livestock Fattening, Commercial Grain Farming, Livestock Ranching, and Nonagricultural Land Use. In this way, perishable goods as well as bulky products are kept closer to the market to avoid the cost of shipping from far off locations, while easily transported products and activities requiring large amounts of space are kept farther away. However, this model is becoming less applicable with the rapidly changing economy which now allows for products to be shipped globally; also this model fails to take into account the physical geography of various regions. To its credit this representation of homogenous geography has been modified in some cases.
Example- In the case of the average farm, fruits and dairy stuffs will be produced relatively close to the market in order to cut shipping costs. In comparison, activities such as reaping and threshing through the use of combines and ranching, which require a great deal of space, are segregated to outlying rings where more space is available.

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Burgess’ Land Use Model

Definition- As used in urban areas, the Burgess' land use model depicts society within an urban area as being arranged in a series of concentric rings in positions defined by social factors.
Explanation- Society as defined by this model is arranged into five rings within an urban area.

1. Central Business District
2. Zone in transition
3. Zone of independent workers' homes
4.Zone of better residences
5.Commuter's Zone
Within each ring differnet levels of society are arranged, where those with higher income are nearer the outskirts while inner city and low class reidents are closer to the center.
Example- Traditionally, this model was based upon the city of Chicago, where the populaqtion was arranged in a way reminiscent to this model.


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Three Agricultural Revolutions

Definition-
1st Agricultural Revolution (Neolithic Revolution) - This agricultural revolution occurred approximately 10,000 years ago and was characterized by the development of sedentary lifestyles through the domestication of plants and animals and conversion of lifestyle from hunter-gatherers to farmers.
2nd Agricultural Revolution - The second agricultural revolution took place from the 1700s through the 1900s and resulted in the development of greater agricultural technologies and practices, such as crop rotation. This revolution also resulted in the expansion of a previously segregated market.
3rd Agricultural Revolution (Green Revolution) - This revolution took place in the mid-20th century and resulted in a rapid growth in biotechnology and genetic engineering. Also, this series of events resulted in the creation of a global market for agricultural products.
Explanation- Each agricultural revolution resulted in various changes to the global connections present in the agricultural industry. For one, the first agricultural revolution produced the very first instances of domestication and also the adaptation of different means of planting crops (vegetative planting and seed agriculture). The second agricultural revolution did not only result in the expansion of technologies but also acted as a catalyst for the Industrial Revolution. The third agricultural revolution allowed for the development of higher yield seeds and more successful fertilizers.
Example- The primary hearths of the first agricultural revolution were located throughout present-day Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The second agricultural revolution was centered in Britain, and would diffuse its ideas readily to spark the Industrial Revolution in the same area. The third agricultural revolution was primarily centered in India and would spread throughout the globe as a global economy developed.

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Diamond’s East-West Axis

Definition- Jared Diamond’s East-West Axis Theory was established in reference to Eurasia general east-west orientation. It stated that for a given country, having an elongated shape in an east-west orientation was more beneficial toward agricultural endeavors.
Explanation- Diamond’s theory is based in the reasoning that in an elongated state, an east-west orientation results in uniform climate where the same crops could be grown throughout and thus create a staple food source that was readily available.
Example- The example used by Jared Diamond was Eurasia, whose primary beneficiary of its east-west orientation was Europe, which saw relative climate homogeneity and the ability to grow crops that were uniform throughout the region.

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Boserup’s Agricultural Intensification Theory
Definition- Boserup’s agricultural intensification theory states that the agricultural means employed in a given area are dependent on the population density. The rate of agricultural development is dependent on both of these factors, and therefore productivity is altered by the fluctuating levels of development.
Explanation- When population density is low; slash and burn agriculture and fallowing can be used, while high population density calls for sustainable means of production such as annual cultivation. Changes in population and therefore in agricultural practices effects the innovation of agriculture and production is effected as a result. During times of hardship, agricultural practices advance rapidly as production rises with more work but less efficiency, thus preventing the food supply from reaching carrying capacity.
Example- This theory is more applicable to developing countries since although unsustainable agriculture is often practiced, changes in agricultural technology arise and often coincide with population fluctuations.

2007-10-19_103818.gifCarrying capacity is never reached due to agricultural innovation