Culture
1.Gimbutas Indo-European Origins theory-
The theory states that the first Proto-Indo-European speakers were the Kurgan people, whose homeland was in the steppes near the border between modern day Russia and Kazakhstan.

Explanation-
The theory was used to explain from where Indo-European firstly developed,since this was found out,it spread out ideas that the people first started to migrate and spread ideas from this location.It also gave a location from where one of the major religeons of today developed.

2.Renfrew's Indo-European Orgins theory-
Renfew argues that theProto-Indo-European people lived before the kurgan population by 2,000 years ago in eastern anatolia in which is what today we call Turkey.

Explanation-Renfew believed that the popultaion which spread the Indo-European branch began somewhere in what would be in the central area of Turkey.Thus he believed that they began diffusing the language branch two thousand years before the Kurgan population.

3.The Eight major Language Families-
Indo-European,sino-Tibetan family,Afro-Asiatic,Austronesian,dravidian,altaic,niger congo,and Japanese.

Explanation-48% of the worldwide population is able to speak of a language which is from the Indo-European branch,such as English.26% of people speak of a Sino-Tibetan family language,such as mandarin.6% of people speak Afro-Asiatic,such as arabic.5% of people speak Austronesian,such as Vietnamese.4% of people speak Dravidian,which would be a branch to a language such as Tamil.3 % of people speak Altaic which would be the main family of a language such as Turkish.3% of people speak a Niger-Congo originated language,there are many small isolated tribes in Africa,so they each have there own language though they have some similarities.2% of people speak the Language of Japanese,which would be considered its own family.While the remaining of the 3% of the population worldwide speaks another language of 100 smaller families.

4.The major universalizing religions
The 5 major universalizing would be:
Sikhism, Baha'i, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity

Explanation-
Skihism was origanlly had a hearth of present day Pakistan,found by Nanak.
Buddhism can have its orgins traced back to present day India near the border of Nepal and India, which was found by Siddhartha Gautama.
The Baha'i religeon was found in Shiraz,Iran in 1844 was found by Siyyid.
Islam was found in Middle eastern countries and northern Africa and was based on Muhammad the prophet of God.
Christianity was found most likely in Israel and based on the teachings and events which Jesus did and
his teachings.

5.The major ethnic religeons-
The major ethnic religeons would be Hinduism, Confucianism, Daoism, and Judaism

Explanation-
Hinduism is mostly located in India and Nepal, and was found by someone unknown, still during modern times.
Confucianism was found by confucius who was a philosopher and teacher, Confucianism most likely diffused from the Chinese province of Lu.
Taoism was found by Lao-Zi, a contmporary of Confucius.
Judaism's founder has been debated to be either Moses or Abraham, and the religion sprang up in the country of modern day Israel.